Group Readings

Group Reading
Dale C. Godby, PhD

T-Group—"Training Group”

The T-Group, often mistakenly referred to as a therapy group, grew out of Kurt Lewin’s work and was developed by the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine around 1947. See (Gallagher, 2012). The T-Group has been frequently used in the training of mental health professionals. The T-Group differs from a therapy group in that the members have come together as a part of their training not because they are seeking help with relational problems. So, it is not therapy, but the hope is it will be therapeutic. It will also help you understand something about group dynamics, which should prove helpful throughout your career. 

Horwitz, L. (1999). Exciting opportunities ahead. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 49, 87-90.

Start with Horwitz's article above to learn what to expect in T-Group. The articles below are listed in order of the value I judge them to be to the resident.

Gans, J. S., Rutan, J. S., Wilcox, N. (1995). T-Groups (Training Groups) in psychiatry Residency Programs: Facts and Possible Implications.
              International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 45, 169-183.

Day, M. (1993). Training and supervision in group psychotherapy. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J.Saddock (Eds.).
             Comprehensive group psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD.: Williams and Wilkins. 

Hopper, E. (2000). From subjects and objects to citizens: Group analysis and the study of maturity. Group Analysis, 33, 29-34. 

Munich, R. L. (1993) Varieties of learning in an experiential group, International Journal 345-36.

Swiller, H. I., Lang, E. A., Halperin, D. A. (1993). Process groups for training psychiatric residents. Washington, D. C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Gallagher, R. A. (2012). A brief history of T-Groups. Downloaded from the web.

Katz, D. A., Tuttle, J. P., and Houseman, B. T. (2011). Psychiatry residents and dynamic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis
              and Dynamic Psychiatry, 39, 

Large and Median Group—from a Group Analytic Perspective 

The small group often reproduces family dynamics, which is no wonder in that they are size of many families. What happens to group dynamics when we increase the group size to 20 or 30 or even 100 members? Pat De Maré sees the median and large group as humanizing society as distinct from the small group whose focus is more on socializing the individual. As one moves out of the family, what does it mean to be a member of your institutional community, or a citizen of Dallas, Texas, the United States, or the World? The large group can confront one with a threat to personal identity. As your experience in the large group develops it will be important to find your voice and examine the ways in which you surender your individuality. 

Godby, D. C. (2015). Introducing median and large group in the training of psychiatrists.Group-Analytic Contexts March 67, 47-54.

Godby, D. C. (2018). 1-page summary of the above paper.

Read the above two papers first to learn a bit about your experience in large group. 

Island, T. K. (Unpublished) The Large Group: From Despair to Dialogue

Thor, a Norwegian psychiatrist and group analyst, discusses an ongoing large group that is part of a training program for 30 years. It is similar to UTSW’s large group. 

Dluhy, M., et al. (2019). The large group experience: Affiliation in a learning community.International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 69, 287-307.

Mary’s paper gives a brief history of large group and focuses on using large group in the context of a temporary conference setting such as the American Group Psychotherapy Association’s annual meeting.

Hopper, E. (2016). Notes on convening large groups and consulting to them. Unpublished.

Earl’s paper offers practical advice as to setting and goals of large group.

Sharpe, M. (2008). Styles of large group leadership. Group, 32, 289-301. (available by request, write This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Meg illustrates and discusses the wide variety of leadership styles she has experienced over her 30 years of conducting and participating in large groups.

Weinberg, H. and Weishut, D. N. (2012). The large group: Dynamics, social implications and therapeutic value. In J. L. Kleinberg (Ed.)
              The Wiley - Blackwell Handbook of Group Psychotherapy. UK, Oxford: John Wiley &     Sons, 

Von Sommaruga Howard, T. (2018). An Architect’s View of the Larger Group.

Teresa is an architect, group analyst and the director of a course on the large group which began in January 2019 in London.

Grundy, D. (2020). Large Group: A Brief Historical and Personal Account, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 70:1, 117-138.
              DOI: 10.1080/00207284.2019.1686984

Gudmundsson, E., Gudmundsdottir, G. B., Gardarsson, H. G., Grimsson, H. (2014).Managing school atmosphere through large groups:
               A five session trial.
International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64, 547-553.

An excellent example of using large group with young children to manage bullying.

Adlam, J. (2014). Going spiral? Phenomena of ‘half-knowledge’ in the experiential largegroup as temporary learning community.
               Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 22,

A wonderful explanation of using the spiral seating structure in large group settings.

Godby, D. (2019). A one-page summary of Adlam’s spiral paper.

 Weinberg, H. and Schneider, S. (20017). Ethical considerations in large group. Group, 31, 215-228.

 Weinberg, H. (2016). Large Group. Haim’s power point from an online AGPA conference on large groups. (available by request, write This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Friedman, R. (2016). The SANDWICH conflict resolution model. Robi’s power point. (available by request, write This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

From an online AGPA conference on large groups. Robi, a psychologist from Haifa, Israel, and past president of GASi has used this model in working with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Howard, T. (1996). Will I get it right? Using median groups in academic settings as a preparation for professional practice.
              Therapeutic Communities 17, 279-291. (available by request, write This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Teresa illustrates how the median group can be used to train professionals to develop artistry in reflective action.


Social Dreaming Matrix (SDM)

 Introducing the social dreaming matrix. Notes by Dale C. Godby, based on notes from Angela Eden who studied with Gordon Lawrence.

 Brief article by Mireille Juchau on Charlotte Beradt's Third Reich of Dreams and the origins of social dreaming. 

Social Dreaming Notes used by Gordon Lawrence supplied by Angela Eden. 



Reflective Citizen Groups (RC)

Mojovic, M. (2007). The impact of the post-totalitarian social context on the group matrix. Group Analysis, 40, 394-403.

Mojovic, M. (2011). Manifestations of psychic retreats in social systems. In E. Hopper & H. Weinberg (Eds.). Social unconscious in persons, groups, 
          and societies Volume 1: Mainly theory. London: Karnac, 209-234.

Mojovic, M., Despotovic, T., Sataric, J. (2014). ‘Conception Trauma’ of Group Analysis in Serbia. Group Analysis, 47, 113-127.

Mojovic, M. (2015). The matrix disrupted. Challenges and changes. Group Analysis, 48, 540-557.

Mojovic, M.  (2016). Serbian Reflective Citizens’ Matrix Flourishing in Leaking Containers. Response to 40th Foulkes Lecture. Group Analysis

Mojovic, M. (2017). "Untouchable infant gangs" in group and social matrices as obstacles to reconciliation. In G. Ofer (Ed.). A bridge over
             troubled water: Conflicts and reconciliation in groups and society. 

Mojović, M.(2019). Serbian reflective citizens and the art of psychosocial listening and dialogue at the caesura.Journal of Psychosocial Studies.
Volume 12, Numbers 1-2, July 2019, pp. 81-95(15)

Mojović, M.(2019). The Balkans on the Reflective-Citizens Couch Unraveling Social-Psychic-Retreats.
           In Uri Levin and Anna Zajenkowska(Eds.) Europe on the Couch.

Mojović, M. (2018b).Totalitarian and Post-TotalitarianMatrices: Reflective-Citizens FacingSocial-Psychic-Retreats. In B. Huppertz (Ed), 
           Approaches to Psychic Trauma: Theory and Practice. Washington DC: Lexington books.

Scanlon, C. (2019) ‘Practising disappointment’: from Reflective-Practice-in-theOrganisation to Deliberative-Practice-in-the-Community.
           In C. Thornton (Ed.) The Art and Science of Reflective Practice in the Organisation. London: Routledge





Godby, D. C. (2019) Group Supervision Notebook. Unpublished.

Rutan and Sharpe on note taking



The forms below are fillable and can be used to keep track of your groups. They can especially be useful for supervision and should be kept to one page. 


Group Member Summary

Group Daily Report

Group Quarterly Report


Group Member Summary

Group Daily Report

Group Quarterly Report